Copyright 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2004 By Elijah Penn
[Footnotes to Part II.][Part I.
Ancient Mystery Unraveled]
go all the way through graduate school in some field related to Egyptology (an intellectual and pecuniary hurdle beyond most common people) and (now for the big one...)
accept the prevailing theories and assumptions that characterize the coursework along the way.
Paying such a price carries an impossible toll on any free-thinker, or anyone who believes in a sovereign God. If Bauval will not pay the price--and why should he?--then he had best lay his conclusions before readers who can judge the merits of his investigations. It is incredible Bauval lists not one footnote to Velikovsky in his entire treatise. Immanuel Velikovsky rocked the astronomical and Egyptological establishments in the 1950's with the publication of his works Ages in Chaos and Earth in Upheaval. His vast and intricate scholarship undercut the foundations of the astronomical and Egyptological establishments. Harvard astronomer Harlow Shapely put pressure on Velikovsky's New York publisher to stop publication of the book. His pressure--representing the combined pride of these establishments--was able to scare away the publisher, but another publisher--Doubleday--had the courage to go with Velikovsky and his radical but erudite and profound ideas became public.
The reason it is incredible that Bauval does not mention Velikovsky--who, for the record, was an agnostic Jew, not a Bible thumping creationist, for instance--is that Velikovsky shows the entire edifice of Egyptology as it exists as a discipline today is false. The accepted chronology of Egypt--and its crosslinks with Israel in such events as the Exodus--is shown by Velikovsky to be off by centuries, and in hopeless contradiction to itself in many places. Velikosky's evidence is primary historical research. As a rational human being with no ax to grind, I accept almost all of Velikovsky's scholarship. In saying this, I am in rebellion against the prevailing orthodoxoy and would be blacklisted and shunned by the Egyptologists that Bauval and others are hoping to get noticed by. It would be a suicide note if any Egyptologist today attempted to embrace Velikovsky in public scholarship.
So I choose to go with the clear-seeing rebel--Velikovsky--and don't give it a second thought that I am totally outside the blessing of the Egyptological establishment. I am not with Bauval in seeking for their notice or recognition. I hope they see the light and shed their skin but I'm not holding my breath. I am used to being outside the flow of the establishment as one who believes in an all-loving sovereign God who is the creator of the Universe and not an unknown, impersonal, chance-bound force that somehow allows the accident of evolution to occur. With renewed personal resolve, let me venture forth to unfold some of the Pyramid's chronological treasures, revealed, let it be reminded, in unerring stone geometry which is as ancient as any writing available to the human race. Moses' penning of Genesis came a thousand years after the Pyramid's message had been tooled in stone.
In an appendix to Peter Tompkin's popular book, The Secrets of the Great Pyramid, is an appendix about ancient Egyptian measures. People can marvel at how "advanced" this system of measures is. But the very concept of "advancement" implies that the roots of the Egyptian science were gleaned from former "lower" civilizations which were before the Egyptian. But that is simply not the case. The Bible makes it abundantly plain that Noah's son Ham was the father of Egypt.1 Noah was the recipient of the advanced knowledge that had come into the world through revelation to the patriarchs before him, especially through Enoch and Adam. Noah used much of this advanced knowledge in construction of the ark, which he built according to the divinely ordained cubit, the basis of the ark's design.2 The cubit is mentioned also in the book of Revelation:
(Rev 21:17) And he measured the wall thereof, an hundred and forty and four cubits, according to the measure of a man, that is, of the angel.
It is mentioned as the unit used by angels. The cubit is a measurement standard from out of this world, used by angels in Heaven. How interesting that the cubit shows itself to be a more rational and scientifically accurate standard than the metric system! When the French savants who invented the metric system chose a standard for that system, they took the one ten millionth part of a meridian from the North Pole to the equator through--where else?--Paris. Ta da! The meter is born...
The problem with this is not only that the meridian through Paris3 is different than all other meridians, but is also subject to change as the topography changes. On the other hand, the sacred cubit is the one ten millionth part of the earth's semi-polar axis, a radius from the center of the earth to the North Pole. This semi-axis does not vary as would a meridian, whether through Greenwich or Paris. If the ancient Egyptians designed the cubit based on the earth's semi-polar axis, and the French scientists--cream of the crop of the Age of Enlightenment, the flower of modernity--did so based on a Parisienne meridian, one has to wonder if evolution is running in reverse. Of course it is more likely that the Creator is the One who designed the cubit to be in direct relation to the planet for which it was meant to be a standard.
The Bible says in eight different places that the Ten Commandments --God's moral standard, just as the cubit (and its corresponding inch) is a linear standard-- were written with "the finger of God," not the genius of Moses. It is a distinctly modern idea that humans can make their own standards, whether moral or linear. This is certainly the prevailing ethic in the schoolroom today. Students take it as an a priori, unquestionable law of the universe that truth is what each individual perceives it to be. Alan Bloom tells us that almost every one of his college students believes this.4 This would have been unthinkable in ancient Egypt.
John Anthony West, following the work of Schwaller de Lubicz, would have us believe that Egyptians were aware of a singular unity pervading all disciplines, thus breeding a respect in each individual for the sacredness and metaphysical nature of everything, including the science of mensuration.5 They would not presume to arbitrarily deify a meter-unit they had created. They would instead instinctively trust that the cubit-measure with which they had been entrusted, was filled with significance and wonder, and would humble themselves to plumb the depths of its revelatory signficance.6 The modern perspective leads to a society where individuals are fixated on questions of cars, houses, brandnames, wealth, idols of their own creation: look at modern architecture where buildings exalt Sears or Prudential or Standard Oil. The ancient Egyptian perspective leads to a fixation on questions like "Am I pure? Am I pleasing to God?"
The Great Pyramid exalts--without gold and jewels--the Creator and His plans and purposes for mankind. No king or pharaoh is buried there. It carries not the name Caesar, nor Sears, but the Creator, who is called in Daniel 8:13 "The Wonderful Numberer." Back to the meter--cubit(inch) comparison. The fact that scientists have only recently calculated the radius of the earth argues for the divine origin of the sacred cubit. Interest is compounded with the fact that the British system of measurement, based on the inch, is directly related to the cubit. Sir Isaac Newton has shown that the sacred cubit contained 25 inches (unlike the more recent cubit whose length is usually given as about 18 inches, or the royal cubit of about 20 inches used in ancient Egypt). Adam Rutherford, in his book series entitled Pyramidology, has laboriously argued that the sacred inch (the 1/25 part of the sacred cubit) is only a hair's breadth different from the British inch. The present work will not differentiate--as Rutherford continually does--between the Pyramid inch (1/25 of a sacred cubit) and the British inch, because it seems to me that the practical accuracy possible in measuring the elements of the Great Pyramid makes frivolous the minuscule distinction between the inches.7 For practical purposes, the two inches are one. Rodolfo Benavides claims that the English inch and the pyramid inch were the same during the reign of Queen Elizabeth.7a
Kurt Mendelssohn, in The Riddle of the Pyramids, gives the standard litany for those who refuse to see the supernatural in the Pyramid's amazing architecture. He belittles the Pyramidiots who believe the Pyramid of Giza is a divine revelation. The work of Scotland's Royal Astronomer, C. Piazzi Smyth, so influential in extracting meaning from the Pyramid's passage systems and chronology, is ridiculed extensively. Smyth argued strenuously, in partnership with noted astronomer Sir John Herschel, for the existence of the inch as the Pyramid's unit of revelation. The two men led a movement which kept Britain from nationally accepting the metric system in the Nineteenth Century, because its basis is man-centered, not divinely ordained as is the Pyramid's. Herschel sat on the British Standards Commission, but resigned in 1869 because of its gravitation toward the metric system. Mendelssohn admits that Smyth is right to try and ascertain the reason for the Great Pyramid's unique and singular accuracy of construction on the value of pi, a value supposedly unknown to the ancient Egyptians. He writes:
"A pyramid with an angle of elevation of 52 degrees---51 degrees, 52 minutes to be precise--has the unique geometrical property that its height stands in the same ratio to its circumference as the radius to the circumference of a circle. This ratio is 1/2pi, where pi is a transcendental number 3.14...Khufu's pyramid is the most carefully built of all and accurate measurement of its foundation has shown that this ratio is correctly represented to better than one part in a thousand. This certainly is far too accurate to be dismissed as a coincidence, and a great number of theories, often involving divine inspiration, have been based on this astonishing numerical fact."8
Mendelssohn actually thinks he demolishes Smyth's work by suggesting a rather crude explanation for this accuracy. He first admits that the Pyramid exhibits "brilliant constructional skill" and "superb workmanship" and a geometric precision which every modern triangulation only more perfectly confirms. But he couples the recognition of this remarkable engineering with a refusal to admit any advanced scientific or revelational component to its construction.
"We have no evidence that the Egyptians of the Old Kingdom had more than the most rudimentary command of mathematics. Any acceptable solution must therefore have a practical, rather than a theoretical, basis, and that suggested to me by an electronics engineer, T.E. Connolly, fulfills this condition."9
Here then, is the basis on which we are to explain the Giza miracle in stone: it must be the work of grunting chimps, aboriginal humans, because
Mendolssohn doesn't think we can doubt the Egyptological historical explanations of the Old Kingdom, and
the speculations of some tech-nerd buddy of his.
So there you have it: Swallow whole the historical framework of the Egyptologists and accept the theory of some electrical engineer. In the process make elaborate fun of the Royal Astronomer for Scotland, and one of England's famous scientists. For the record, here is the profound conjecture of our electrical engineer: The Pyramid builders' method was--and here I quote--"to roll a drum and count the number of revolutions."10 Amazing! Of course Mendolssohn does not explain how these half-ape Egyptians formed a drum with so exact a diameter, nor, apparently does the electrical engineer. My preference, after seeing so many similar efforts to debunk a truth which is as uncompromising and immovable as the Great Pyramid, is to let the rocks themselves cry out. With that, let us listen as the inches speak.
The interior passage systems of the Great Pyramid vindicate the bias of Western civilization, which is amazing considering that Egyptians are Easterners. The major bias of Western civilization that I have in mind here is the foundational axiom that Christianity is the one true and great religion, that its teachings provide eternal values and guidance, and that the lessons of God's dealings with the Jews in the Old Testament and his revelations to believers in the New are instructive to the entire human family. This bedrock perspective, though misapplied, motivated Columbus to venture, the British to unapologetically rule in India and carve up Africa with other European powers, and Crusaders to go forth killing with zeal. It is the ruling governor in the concept of America's "manifest destiny." It has to do with being unashamedly sure that Christianity is the one true religion.
How does the Great Pyramid share this perspective? The meaning of the Pyramid's inner passageways and their associated chronology focus, not on Pharaoh Cheops, his lineage, the history of the previous Egyptian dynasties or the dynasties to come, but upon the general falleness of the human race, the Hebrew Exodus event, the cross of Christ, and the tribulations to rock the planet before His return. It is for this reason that efforts are launched to crush the Pyramid's solemn revelations. Men want to be their own masters, their own judges, their own gods. The passage system of the Pyramids reminds mankind that the Creator of Heaven and Earth has a plan for the human race which He created and its members individually.
Look at the diagram of the Pyramid's internal passage system. The descending passage, moving steadily toward the pit, represents the course that this world has taken since the fall of the race in its original parents. Men are continually talking of progress--think of all the glories of the internet and modern electronics!!--and yet the world is forever and everywhere filled with war, disease, and the inhumanity of human beings to each other. The glories of Atlantis--whatever they were--were not sufficient to keep it from dying.
The apostle Paul writes this interesting bit of historical interpretation in his letter to the Romans:
Death reigned from Adam to Moses (Rom. 5:14)
At the time of Moses, the world received the revelation of God's Law, the Ten Commandments. Paul is saying that without this law to inform people that, for instance, adultery, stealing and murder are sins against God, they would tend to go on doing them. Their living would be dying. Death would reign. But with the law comes a knowledge of the right. Thus the Ten Commandment law, while it has been vilified by secularists and Christians alike, is a gift from God, pointing the human race toward Heaven, toward a life that is pleasing to God.
It is thus significant that at the point indicated by the Pyramid's chronograph to be the time of the Exodus, the upward passage system begins, breaking away from the descending passage as sharply as the Israelites broke away from Egypt under Moses. This is the exodus point by two different reckonings. If the entrance door is taken as the date of the construction of the Pyramid, at an inch for a year the first ascending passage comes at the time of the exodus, about 1484 B.C., a date in harmony with Velikovsky's work and the Biblical chronology.
Secondly, if the face angle of the Pyramid is hypothetically extended until it meets the first ascending passage, (also hypothetically extended), a zero point, representing the creation of Adam, is determined. At the scale of an inch for a year from this point on a straight upward march toward the Kings Chamber at the angle of the upward passages, the beginning of the first ascending passage is again identified as the time of the Exodus.
Thus the geometric appearance of the first ascending passage--a radical break with the downward course of the descending passage--is in harmony with what it represents: The Exodus. Winston Churchill said the Exodus was the "most decisive leap forward ever discernible in the human story." The chronography is a remarkable vindication and confirmation of the geography.
A further link with geometric appearance and meaning is the fact the there are two huge red granite stones completely blocking the way up the first ascending passage. These two stones powerfully symbolize the Ten Commandment law which was given by God to the Jews at the time of the Exodus. While the law is a holy reflection of God's purity, it is utterly impossible for it to act as a pipeline toward Heaven. The law kills, it does not give life. Who has never coveted? Who has perfectly honored their parents or perfectly kept the Sabbath day? While the law reveals God's perfect moral design, it does absolutely nothing to help fallen men achieve it. Thus the two granite stones, placed at the point representing chronologically the Exodus and the giving of the Law, aptly symbolize the two tablets of the Ten Commandments, blocking the way to Heaven because of the perfection they demand.
The next major geometric point defined by the voice of the Pyramid's inner passage system is the conjunction of three of the passages: the end of the first ascending passage, the beginning of the Grand Gallery and the beginning of the opening to the Queen's Chamber. The Grand Gallery represents a remarkably different architecture and construction than the much lower first ascending passageway. It has a ceiling of 28 feet which helps create the feeling of being uplifted, after coming out of the first ascending passage through which one must crouch to ascend.
In geometric form, the resurrection of Christ is represented. The first ascending passage, beginning with the Exodus, would obviously then represent the Jewish or law dispensation. Thus the two major sections of the upward passage system, the only upward passages in any of the pyramids, represent what has been the basis of Western Civilization: the Judaeo-Christian history and, implicitly, its values. The Grand Gallery's magnificent rise--from four feet to 28 feet!--indicates the surpassing glory of the revelation of God in Christ, the fulfillment of the Jewish shadows, laws, and ceremonies in the Messiah.
Following the same chronographic scale that was used to identify the Exodus point, the beginning of the Grand Gallery pinpoints the exact time of Jesus' death and resurrection!
The Queen's Chamber passage, being horizontal, and thus sort of a parenthetical excursus off of the upward climb of the first ascending passage and the Grand Gallery, represents the reward of Jesus' victory: the title deed to planet earth, and the prophetic assurance that this earth will be made new. When Christ wrestled with the powers of evil in his earthly ministry, the battle was over ultimate control and dominion of planet earth. If Christ would have failed in His mission, the world would be Satan's, and eternal life on an earth made new would be only an illusion. With Christ's sacrificial death and glorious resurrection, the title deed is His. This earth will be made new as an eternal home for all believers. But the tangible, physical passage representing this grand spiritual truth is a horizontal parenthesis because this fallen earth still limps along, cancer-plagued and ecologically debauched. We do not now see the reward of Jesus' victory and labor, except by faith. The Pyramid, the Bible in Stone as Joseph Seiss called it, gives a stone parable to further build the faith of those who believe. That stone parable, translated, is saying something like this:
As you continue in your journey toward Heaven, do not let the cold hearts and deteriorating conditions around you discourage you from the assurance that I have won the victory for you. I have redeemed this fallen planet. Let this great fact give you courage as you press forward in the battle of life. To the secular-minded, this is pyramidiocy.
No exposition of the Queen's Chamber chronograph will be offered at this time, since none of the Pyramid writers has ever indulged such a study. The focus has always been to heed the inches heading up the first ascending passage, the Grand Gallery, and the horizontal approach to the King's Chamber. Since the Queen's Chamber seems to represent the earth in the age to come--the prize won by the sacrifice of the Messiah on behalf of the human race--some scale is probably hidden in the Pyramid which, when revealed, would give the amount of time from the crucifixion of Christ to the beginning of the age to come.
Continuing the assent of the Grand Gallery, the next major geometric feature is the Great Step. Rising about a yard (3') above the floor line of the Grand Gallery, it is the first change in the floor line since the Exodus point at the conjunction of the Descending and Ascending passages. Even where the Grand Gallery begins, at the point representing the crucifixion and resurrection of Christ, the floor line remains the same as it was for the first ascending passage, representing the Jewish dispensation. The architectural symbolism thus indicates that the work of the Messiah, and His redemption of the human race, did not change the walk, or life-style which God wants for humanity. While the 28 foot high Grand Gallery ceiling represents an increased glory possible for the Christian era, the unchanged floor line indicates that God's plans for Jews who lived in the era before Christ are the same as His plans for Christians who live after Him. Walk straight and honest, be true and pure, and keep headed upward.
But the Great Step represents a change of floor line, a change of direction. What is the time of the Great Step according to the Great Pyramid, and what is its significance, its meaning? Many Pyramid writers have given the date 1844 to this most distinctive aspect of the Pyramid's geometry. This date is derived the same way as the Exodus point and the point representing Christ's resurrection, by counting a year to an inch. But none of the Pyramid writers have offered much of an explanation for that date. Tom Valentine points out that 1844 is a date with some meaning in the Ba'hai faith, but this is rather unsatisfying, especially considering the remarkable conformance of traditional Judaeo-Christian history with the Pyramid. There is one overlooked movement, world-wide in extent, to which the date 1844 stands out with unmistakable singularity. Since this date, marked out by the silent, unerring stone of the Great Pyramid 1000 years before Moses wrote Genesis, marks the gateway to the Pyramid's final horizontal passage as it approaches the King's Chamber, its explanation will begin part III of this work. Since the Pyramid pinpointed the dates of two singular, epochal moments in Judaeo-Christian history, (the Exodus and the Cross) we can be forgiven if we look with some sense of insightful expectation at the timeline of that which lies just before us in time...
Students of this Gigantic Mystery will not want to miss the intersection of the Pyramid's prophetic timeline with the day in which we are living. In a sense, the entire message of the Pyramid, the sweat of every Egyptian stone laborer, the preoccupation of ancient pharaonic dynasties, has anxiously awaited the crowning moment of time in which we live.